Autores: Claudia Gabriela García-Chávez, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan A Rivera, Eric Monterrubio-Flores and Katherine L Tucker
Objective: Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors.
Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables.
Setting: 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012).
Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5–11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012.
Results: Four DP were identified: ‘Traditional’, ‘Industrialized’, ‘Varied’ and ‘Modern’. Reported energy intake (mean (SD)) was lowest in the ‘Traditional’ and highest in the ‘Industrialized’ DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95% CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a ‘Modern’ rather than ‘Traditional’ DP. Relative likelihood of having an ‘Industrialized’ rather than ‘Traditional’ DP was 6·2 (95% CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES.
Conclusions: Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a ‘Modern’ than a ‘Traditional’ DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an ‘Industrialized’ pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.